Reasons behind teen dating violence

Further, many adolescents have difficulty recognizing physical and sexual abuse as such and may perceive controlling and jealous behaviors as signs of love (Levy, 1990).

This article provides a critical review of the research literature with respect to risk factors for both perpetrators and victims of dating violence and examines the research on the effectiveness of prevention and intervention programs.

Most obvious is the greater physical harm that can be inflicted by male violence due to males' often greater size and strength.

Compared to boys, girls are more likely to sustain injuries and require medical treatment as a result of the violence (Makepeace, 1987).

Risk factors have been defined as "attributes or characteristics that are associated with an increased probability of [its] reception and/or expression" (Hotaling & Sugarman, 1990 p. Risk factors are correlates of dating violence and not necessarily causative factors.

Thus, they may have implications for prevention program, but they may also be outcomes that have implications for treatment.

Middle school, high school, and college age women experience a higher rate of rape than any other group.

Rape is most likely to be perpetrated by someone the victim knows, such as a friend, an acquaintance, a date, a family member, or a partner (Silverman, Raj, Mucci, and Hathaway, 2001; Warshaw, 1988; Haplem, Oslak, Young, Martin, and Kupper, 2001).

Especially encouraging is a program demonstrating long-term behavioral change.Moreover, the emotional consequences of the violence are more harmful for females than for males.Further research is needed to enhance our understanding of adolescent dating violence including the nature of conflicts, as well as the meaning, context, intent, and consequences of the violence and the role of gender.A number of school based programs focusing on reducing violence in teen dating relationships and promoting healthy respectful relationships show promising results.The majority of these programs have focused on increasing students' awareness and knowledge about dating violence, changing attitudes and norms that condone violence, and building conflict resolution and communication skills.

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